Monthly Archives: November 2012

“Greed, Governance and Ethics”: a talk about corporate failures.

Stewart Hamilton spoke at the Business School on the history of economic bubbles and business failures. Unfortunately, he had a lot to go on. His main thesis seemed to be that we were incapable of learning from history: and governance and ethics were no match for greed…

I found four different kinds of failure in the sorry list of collapse that he ran through:

These are widespread market failures engulfing many organisations, often arising from speculative asset bubbles (in all those above, either commercial or residential property, but he could have included the 2000 bust, resulting from a bubble in internet company shares, or the Dutch tulip crisis of the 17th century, where the asset bubble involved the price of tulip bulbs – bizarre but true). In these bubbles, no one wants to be left out of rising asset prices, causing assets prices to rise further, pulling more buyers in – until something pricks the bubble and the asset prices tumble, leading to an economic crisis.

  • corporate malfeasance, such as
    • Enron
    • BCCI
    • WorldCom
    • Olympus (not mentioned by Hamilton, but a recent, agressive example)
    • Ferranti through its takeover of ISS (again, not raised by Hamilton, but one that affected a great many citizens of Edinburgh)

where illegal or unethical behaviour is widespread and systematic at a senior management and board level, with many people involved.

and perhaps RBS and HBoS – these last three all victims of the global financial crisis, but their collapse specifically related to bad management decision-making.

Not all of these cases resulted in the complete corporate collapse of the organisation in question – AIB is still going (albeit mired in tax evasion and overcharging issues), as is Olympus; RBS and HBoS survived thanks to government intervention.

Greed (from which stem fraud and other illegal and unethical behaviours) and incompetence are nothing new. The real problem is that corporate governance is no real counterbalance to them: similar issues seem to have affected UBS, which lost $2bn as a result of a “rogue trader” seems to have learnt nothing from the collapse of Barings, as a result of Nick Leeson’s illegal trading. Organisations have processes and controls in place to stop people exceeding their authority – and risking the bank. But these didn’t work at Barings or UBS, nor at any of the huge institutions like AIG, RBS or HBoS, nor smaller banks like Northern Rock. They didn’t understand the risks of the products they traded and held (and they weren’t alone – Chuck Prince, CEO of Citibank, said in early July 2007 “When the music stops, in terms of liquidity, things will be complicated. But as long as the music is playing, you’ve got to get up and dance. We’re still dancing” – days later, the music stopped, and banks started to go bust – but not Citi (though it apparently came close).

Hamilton used AIG as an example of an organisation that was not only “too big to fail”, but more importantly too big to manage or regulate. He said AIG comprised of over 7,000 legal entities in 150 different countries, trading in countless different business areas. How could any one regulator – or the company’s auditors – know what was going on, and what or where the real risks were?

Hamilton reckoned the real problems lie when there is a combination of a dominant CEO and an ineffective board – the board failing to keep the CEO in check, particularly regarding the governance of poor strategy. (Of course, poor strategy may only be knowable with hindsight: Fred Goodwin was hailed as great leader after the takeover of NatWest by RBS, and it was perhaps only the timing of the RBS bid for ABN AMRO that was RBS’ undoing.) Large corporations attract strong leaders, though that might not be what they need. Strong leaders see attraction in growing their organisations – not least because, as Hamilton pointed out, the bigger the company, the bigger the remuneration (it doesn’t take long for greed to creep in!): and acquisition is the quickest way to grow. But maybe the least sustainable.

Throughout all this, I was unclear on the role of management education. Hamilton is emeritus professor at a management school, IMD; we were sitting in the lecture theatre of a business school. I have done an MBA; there was an ethics course, but little more – I don’t remember any specific teaching in, for instance, directors’ responsibilities. Anyone can become a company director. One cannot legislate for ignorance or foolishness; but requiring directors to be educated on their role might be a start.

Entrepreneurs and Scottish Independence: a debate.

The Entrepreneurs Club at the business school held a debate (jointly with MBM Commercial, a legal practice) about independence and businesses.

There were five speakers (plus Bill Jamieson in the chair, who recommended this report by ICAS on taxation and independence): J.P. Anderson; Gavin Gammell; Jim Mather; Ian Ritchie; and Ian Stevens. Of these, one was vehemently pro-independence, one vehemently pro-Union and three uncommitted but, I felt, leaning pretty much towards the Union’s camp. This surprised me somewhat – it made the panel feel pretty much unbalanced (albeit in a way that I strongly agree with). Could they really only find one business person who favours a “Yes” vote? (Also, why no women and no minorities?)

The two who felt very strongly both appealed to largely emotional arguments, in ways that, judging by the questions following the speeches, didn’t go down particularly well with the audience. The pro-Union speaker talked about the shared history of the Union, our strength as part of a large nation, and the fear of economic collapse under independence. The pro-independence speaker talked of England (and, specifically, London) creaming off capital and talent, how it was time for Scotland to stand on its own two feet, and how Scotland had to find its own destiny. His speech was painfully low on detail, and frankly jumped all over the place – though I will admit that I was never likely to be convinced by his emotional appeals.

The key issues for the three uncommitted-but-leaning-Union seemed to be

  • the damage caused by long periods of uncertainty (for a minimum of two years until the referendum, and in the case of a “Yes” result, perhaps another five whilst all the details are decided and the Union is unravelled), particularly regarding
    • relationships with EU and NATO
    • the currency
    • taxation
  • access to capital and markets
  • risks to funding research and education (specifically, Scottish institutions receive more from funding bodies on the basis of their research projects than a per capita share; and Scottish universities currently charge fees of English students which they would be unlikely to be able to do under independence, since they can’t charge students of other EU nations)
  • regulation, particularly of financial institutions (an independent Scotland could not afford to be the lender of last resort for either RBS or the HBoS arm of Lloyds, both of which might therefore need to be headquartered in England)
  • the role and size of the public sector in Scotland

Neither those for nor against independence were able to come up with a “business plan” for their outcome – indeed, one of the weaknesses of the Unionist argument seems to be the inability to produce a positive message for the Union: I agree we’re “Better Together“, but where are the positives of the Union (as opposed to scare stories)?

The crux of the debate came down to the inability of the “Yes” campaign to provide answers to many questions, so that people don’t know (and won’t know by the time of the referendum in two years’ time) what they’ll actually be voting for. Not their fault, necessarily (though the SNP government has been woeful in its obfuscation), but clearly critical for the key “don’t knows”.

The results of the poll at the end of the debate were:

77% vote No

Pretty categorical: 77% of attendees voted “No”, out of 115 votes cast (which means about 35 people, or 23%, couldn’t be bother to vote Or, more positively, a 77% turnout!).

Thoughts on “Shareholder Value”…

A couple of weeks ago, after yet another corporate tax avoidance wheeze came to light, I was having a Twitter-based conversation with Steve and Gordon about “shareholder value” – specifically, whether the need to maximise shareholder value was dictated by company law. (The answer, by the way, is – predictably – “it depends”. More on that later!) It echoed something that economist Robert Shiller said when he spoke at he spoke at the RSA last May – he said something like the pursuit of shareholder value was so enshrined in (US common) law that social entrepreneurs needed new legal forms of organisation structures to do what they wanted to do – otherwise they could be sued for failing to maximise shareholder value. (I wasn’t convinced by Shiller’s argument that a new form of company was needed, at least within the UK.)

These exchanges made me question the concept of shareholder value: my background in finance meant that I took shareholder value for granted – a no-brainer: it was the orthodoxy when I was training, over twenty five years ago (that’s the late 1980s, in case you can’t do the maths!), and again, fifteen years later when I did my MBA. It struck me as being good to review my understanding of shareholder value.

“Shareholder value” – there are many definitions, but this one seems simplest:

the value that a shareholder is able to obtain from his/her investment in a company. This is made up of capital gains, dividend payments, proceeds from buyback programs and any other payouts that a firm might make to a shareholder

– is the be all and end all of management. It stems from the separation of ownership of an limited companies by shareholders from the management of those companies – the principal-agent problem. By focusing on shareholder value, managers should align their interest with shareholders.

I still think this is simply stating the bleedin’ obvious: managers of a firm should manage the firm in the interests of the owners (the shareholders). It is the same for all employees – if you behave in a way that is detrimental to the company whilst performing your duties, you are likely to be sanctioned.

In financial decision making, maximising shareholder value is often synonymous with maximising the net present value of future income streams – calculating the discounted cash flows of a company. That is essentially how the market prices of share are estimated (and they go up and down as the market reassesses those future values). Allegedly.

This gives a relatively simple way to estimate shareholder value, and companies regularly assess new projects to maximise shareholder value.

The duties of directors to act for the advantage of shareholders is set out in the UK Companies Act 2006 (and previous versions of it, too!). But CA 2006 goes beyond its predecessors by establishing “enlightened shareholder value”. Section 172 of the CA 2006 states

(1) A director of a company must act in the way he considers, in good faith, would be most likely to promote the success of the company for the benefit of its members as a whole, and in doing so have regard (amongst other matters) to—
(a) the likely consequences of any decision in the long term,
(b) the interests of the company’s employees,
(c) the need to foster the company’s business relationships with suppliers, customers and others,
(d) the impact of the company’s operations on the community and the environment,
(e) the desirability of the company maintaining a reputation for high standards of business conduct, and
(f) the need to act fairly as between members of the company.
(2) Where or to the extent that the purposes of the company consist of or include purposes other than the benefit of its members, subsection (1) has effect as if the reference to promoting the success of the company for the benefit of its members were to achieving those purposes.

So whilst the company is to be run for the benefit of its members [shareholders] (s172.1), it requires a long term view (s172.1.a), consideration of employees (s172.1.b) and other stakeholders (s172.1.c and d), and maintaining a reputation for high standards (s172.1.e). Shareholders come first, but clearly CA 2006 reckons that the best way to maximise the benefit for shareholders is through its relationships with others. And, though I’m not a lawyer, I reckon that s172.2 means that the directors have discretion to do things other than in the immediate interest of shareholders for a longer term benefit. (Like making contributions to charity, perhaps?)

In the US, corporate law is set at a state level; for historic reasons, though, the small state of Delaware has over 50% of company registrations, and they are determined by Delaware General Corporation Law ((DGCL). This doesn’t set out directors’ duties, which are governed instead by common law.

The key ruling seems to be Dodge v Ford Motor Co (1919): Henry Ford wanted to expand production the company (of which he was the major shareholder) for the benefit of employees and customers – cutting prices in the process. (A strategy of going for growth and market share at the expense of profits.) The Dodge Brothers objected, and the court ruled in their favour:

A business corporation is organised and carried on primarily for the profit of shareholders. The powers of directors are to be employed for that end.

Shareholders have primacy.

This might seem unequivocal, but of course it isn’t. There is a huge amount of discretion for directors.

In public companies shareholders will have a huge range of objectives. Some may want a stream of dividends to supplement their income now; some might want future capital growth; some might simply want to have a say in what a company is doing (like protester at BP’s AGM). The CA 2006 covers this in s172.1.f – “the need to act fairly as between members of the company”.

But most shareholders are shareholders because they want some form of their wealth to increase through income or capital growth. The UK stockmarket was, in 2010, owned 11.5% by individuals, 41% by financial companies and institutions (pension funds, unit trusts, insurance companies and banks) and 41% by “rest of the world” (overseas financial companies and individuals). Anyone with a pension plan or investment has a direct or indirect investment in listed public companies.

Those financial institutions are increasingly measured by their relative, often short term performance: fund managers (the people managing the share portfolios of those unit trusts, pension funds and insurance companies) are measured on their quarterly performance, and so they assess the shares in those portfolios on quarterly performance as well. Focussing on “shareholder value” allows them to do this.

Additional focus on shareholder value has come from the rise of shareholder activism – particularly from hedge funds. Activist shareholders are nothing new – the Dodge brothers in Dodge v Ford were activist shareholders: they wanted to influence the company’s strategy in a particular direction.

There is no time-frame for shareholder value, which is what makes it rightly subjective: focus on the short term profit, like many hedge fund managers, and you’ll stuff future value. Focus on customers, employees, suppliers and (erm…) the broader community – focus on relationships, if you will – and your business will grow for the future but perhaps at the loss of those short term gains.

For instance, Starbucks may have maximised its current shareholder value by legally minimising its corporation tax liability, but at the expense of its reputation once the story broke and, if customers act on this knowledge and choose to buy someone else’s coffee, future profits.

I know which I prefer.